Clinical signs and symptoms
Rosacea may vary significantly among different people. However, at least one of the following primary features is present, as well as various other secondary features, which may be also present on the skin.
→ Primary Features of Rosacea
Rosacea usually affects the convex surfaces in the centre of the face. The presence of one or more of the following features is indicative of the diagnosis of rosacea. Symptoms are usually transient and each symptom may appear independently of the other symptoms.
- Transient redness (flushing) is present on the face occasionally, and it is usually the first symptom of the disease.
- Persistent redness is the most common sign of rosacea, and it may resemble persistent sunburn.
- Papules and pustules are small red bumps or spots with pus. They look like acne spots, but they do not have black spots. They are usually accompanied by itching or a burning sensation. In some cases, nodules may also be present.
- Telangiectasias also known as spider veins are small dilated blood vessels which many people with rosacea also have.
→ Secondary features of Rosacea
They are often present together with one or more main features of rosacea, but in some patients, they may appear individually.
- Eye irritation.Watery or red eyes, eyelids also red and swollen, and sometimes may have a chalazion (a cyst in the eyelid due to a blocked oil gland).
- Pruritus (itching) or burning sensation.It is a very common symptom of rosacea.
- Cutaneous plaque.Precipitated red spots, also known as plaques, may develop on the surrounding skin.
- Dryness and roughness.The skin at the central part of the face becomes dry, which can lead to eczematous dermatitis and seborrhoeic dermatitis.
- Edema. It is usually accompanied by persistent erythema; it may last for days or become worst due to inflammatory changes.
- Skin swelling.Skin may become denser and swollen, usually the nose (rhinophyma) due to excessive tissue.
- Non-facial symptoms.Rosacea may also develop in other areas of the body apart from the face, such as the neck, chest, scalp or ears.